Tooth discoloration may be caused by intrinsic or extrinsic stains or a combination of both. There are two major approaches to removing the stains, including the chemical mechanism using peroxides for tooth bleaching and the mechanical mechanism using abrasives in prophylactic pastes and dentifrices to remove stains, resulting in a whitening effect.
Toothpastes can be formulated with different abrasive systems, depending on their intended clinical use. This formulation potentially affects their effectiveness and safety. Attempts have also been made to add a low concentration of peroxides to dentifrices to enhance their abrasive cleaning to remove tooth stains.
Here are why baking soda could be an effective tooth whitener
Soda has low abrasivity
Studies have shown that baking soda has an intrinsic low-abrasive nature because of its comparatively lower hardness in relation to enamel and dentin. This results in whiter teeth without much damage to the tooth that any other abrasive would do.
Soda is biocompatible
Baking soda is biologically compatible with acid-buffering capacities.
Soda has antibacterial properties
Baking soda is antibacterial at high concentrations.
Soda is cheap
Soda is easily available and cost effective.
Soda is effective
There is accumulated evidence in literature of the clinical efficiency and safety of baking soda for tooth stain removal and subsequent tooth whitening. Advances in research and technology have led to innovative formulations of dentifrices using baking soda as the sole abrasive or a component of an abrasive system. Baking soda–based dentifrices are more effective in stain removal and whitening than some non–baking soda—containing dentifrices with a higher abrasivity.